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Below is a bibliography of needs assessment related articles and chapters. If you have others that you would like for us to add, please Contact Us using the form to the left.

You can find PDF copies of many articles on needs and needs assessment in the new Filing Cabinet. If you have PDF copies of articles you would like for us to add, please email them to us.

Abdullah, H. (2009). Training Needs Assessment and Analysis: A Case of Malaysian Manufacturing Firms. European Journal of Scientific Research. 37(3), pp.351-360.


Al-Khayyat, Ridha (1998). "Training and development needs assessment: a practical model for partner institutes." Journal of European Industrial Training 22:1: 18-27

Altschuld, J. W. (2015). Needs Assessment. In James D. Wright (editor-in-chief), International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Second Edition, Volume 16, 402-408.

Altschuld, J. W., Hung, H.-L., & Lee, Y.-F. (2014). Needs assessment and asset/capacity building: A promising development in practice. In J. W. Altschuld & R. Watkins (Eds.), Needs assessment: Trends and a view toward the future. New Directions for Evaluation, 144, 89–103.

Altschuld, J. W., & Lepicki, T. L. (2009).  Needs assessment and education.  In S. Mathison, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Evaluation.  Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Altschuld, J. W., & Lepicki, T. L. (2010). Needs Assessment in Human Performance Interventions.  In R. Watkins and D. Leigh (Eds.), The Handbook for the Selection and Implementation of Human Performance Interventions, San Francisco: Wiley (Jossey-Bass) and Silver Spring, MD:International Society for Performance Improvement.

Altschuld, J. W. (2004).  Fault tree analysis. In S. Mathison, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Evaluation.  Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Altschuld, J. W. (2003/2004).  Emerging dimensions of needs assessment.  Performance Improvement, 10-15.

Altschuld, J. W., & Kumar, D. D. (2004).  Needs assessment.  In S. Mathison, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Evaluation.  Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Altschuld, J. W. (1986).  Review of Assessing Needs in Educational and Social ProgramsEducational and Communications Technology Journal, 33(4), 297-299. 

Altschuld, J. W., & Watkins, R. (2014). A primer on needs assessment: More than 40 years of research and practice. In J. W. Altschuld & R. Watkins (Eds.), Needs assessment: Trends and a view toward the future. New Directions for Evaluation, 144, 5–18.

Anderson, J. (2000). Training needs assessment, evaluation, success, and organizational strategy and effectiveness: An exploration of the relationships. (Doctoral dissertation). ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing.

Anderson, G. (1994). A proactive model for training needs analysis. Journal of European Industrial Training, 18 (3): pp. 23-28.


Armstrong. P. (1982). The myth of meeting needs in adult education and community development. Critical Social Policy. vol. 2 no. 5 24-37

Arthur, W. Jr., Bennett, W. Jr., Edens, P.S., and Bell, S.T. (2003), Effectiveness of Training in Organizations: A Meta-analysis of Design and Evaluation Features, Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 234–245.

Barker Steege, L. M., Marra, R. M. and Jones, K. (2012), Meeting needs assessment challenges: Applying the performance pyramid in the U.S. Army. Perf. Improv., 51: 32–41.

Bednar, A. (1988). Needs Assessment as a Change Strategy: A case study. Performance Improvement Quarterly. 1(2). p. 31-39.

Bender, T., McNutt, J., and Purdy, E. (1993). A consortium approach to community needs assessment: A case study and principles for practice and education. American Journal of Evaluation, 14(2), 149-153.

Benjamin, S. (1989). A closer look at needs analysis and needs assessment: Whatever happened to the systems approach? Performance and Instruction, 28(9), 12-16.

Berman, P. S., Sulsky, L., Pargament, K., Balzer, W. K., Kausch, D. (1991). The role of needs assessment in the design of employee assistance programs: A case study. Employee Assistance Quarterly, 6(3)21–35.


Bowers, C.A., Jentsch, F., Salas, E. and Braun, C.C. (1998), "Analyzing communication sequences for team training needs assessment", Human Factors, Vol. 40 No. 4, pp. 672-9.


Bowman, J., and Wilson, J. (2008). Different roles, different perspectives: perceptions about the purpose of training needs analysis Bowman, Industrial and Commercial Training. 40. 1: 38-41.


Bradshaw, J (1972). The concept of social need. New Society, 19, 496, 640-643

Bradshaw, J. (1977). The Concept of Social Need. In Gilbert, N. & Specht, H.(Eds). Planning for Social Welfare: Issues, models, and tasks. Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Braimoh, D. (1994). A theoretical framework of training needs analysis for African para-medical personnel through distance education. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 20(2), 265-277.

Brethower, D. (1997). Rapid analysis: Matching Solutions to Changing Situations. Performance
Improvement, 36(10), 16-21.


Brinkerhoff, R. (1986). Expanding Needs Analysis. Training and Development Journal. 40:64-65.

Brown, K. (2009). An iterative needs assessment/evaluation model for a Japanese university English-language program. (Doctoral dissertation). ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing.

Brown, J. (2002, Winter). Training needs assessment: A must for developing an effective training program. Public Personnel Management, 31(4), 569-578.


Burner, K.J. (2010), "From performance analysis to training needs assessment", in Silber, K.H. and Foshay, W.R. (Eds), Handbook of Improving Performance in the Workplace: Instructional Design and Training Delivery, Pfeiffer Publishing, San Francisco, CA, pp. 144-83.

Burnett, J., Dyer, C.B., & Pickins, S. (2007). Rapid needs assessments for older adults in
disasters. Generations, 31(4), 10-15.

Buttram, J.L. (1990) Focus Groups: A Starting Point for Needs Assessment. American Journal of Evaluation..207-212.

Cassner, M. & Adams, K.E. (2006). Assessing the professional development needs of distance librarians in academic libraries. Journal of Library Administration, 45(1/2), 81-99.

Casteel, R. B. (2012). Volunteer management needs assessment of the Tennessee 4-H program. Journal of Extension, 50(1), article number 1RIB2.

Cekada, T (2010). Training needs assessment: Understanding what employees need to know. Professional Safety, 28-33.

Cekada, T. L. (2011). Conducting an effective needs assessment. Everhart - Literature Review Professional Safety. Vol. 56 Issue 12, p28.

Chang, J. C., Chiang, T. C., & Kun-YI, C. (2012). The Systematic Construction and
Influential Factors of Training Needs Assessment. International Journal of Business and
Social Science, 3.

Chen, Y. & Lin, C. (2009). Needs assessment of volunteers in a non-profit organization in taiwan. College Student Journal, 43, 105-113.

Chiu, W., Thompson, D., Mak, W., and Lo, K.L. (1999), Re–thinking Training Needs Analysis: A Proposed Framework for Literature Review, Personnel Review, 28, 77–89.


Clarke, N. (2003). The politics of training needs analysis. Journal of Workplace Learning, 15(4), 141-141-153.

Cline, E. and  Seibert, P. (1993).  Help for first-time needs assessors.  Training & Development, v47, n5, p99(3)

Cohen, R., Amiel, G. E., Tann, M., Shechter, A., Weingarten, M., & Reis, S. (2002, December). Performance Assessment of Community-based Physicians: Evaluating the Reliability and Validity of a Tool for Determining CME Need. Academic Medicine, 77(12), 1247-1254.

Cohen, B. (1981). Do you really want to conduct a needs assessment? Philadephia: Management and Behavioral Science Center, University of Pennsylvania.

Conkright, T. D. (1998). So you're going to manage a project.... Training, 62-64.

Cook, S. (2005b). Learning needs analysis part 4: Planning the learning needs analysis project. Training Journal, 54-58.


Cooke, Kathleen (1979). "A Model for the Identification of Training Needs." Public Personnel Management 8:4: 257.

Corn, J. O. (2010). Investigating the quality of the school technology needs assessment (STNA) 3.0: A
validity and reliability study. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58 (4). 353-

Csete, J.M. (1996). Needs assessment: what a difference does (and can) it make? Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED396002)

Cureton, J.,  Newton, A. and Tesolowski, D. (1986).  Finding out what managers need.  Training & Development Journal, v40, n5, p106(2).

Daley, W.R., Karpati, A. & Sheik, M. (2001). Needs assessment of the displaced population
following the August 1999 earthquake in Turkey. Disasters, 25(1), 67-75.

Dalton, R., Scheeringa, M.S., & Zeanah, C.H. (2008). Did the prevalence of PTSD following
Hurricane Katrina match a rapid needs assessment prediction?: A template for future
public planning after large-scale disasters. Psychiatric Annals, 38(2), 134-141.

Darraugh, B. (1991).  It takes six. (six-step model for needs assessment). Training & Development Journal, v45, n3, p21(3).

Dachner, A. M., Saxton, B. M., Noe, R. A., & Keeton, K. E. (2013). To infinity and
beyond: using a narrative approach to identify training needs for unknown and dynamic
situations. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 24(2), 239-267.


Denby, S. (2010). "The importance of training needs analysis." Industrial and Commercial Training 42:3: 147-150

DeSilets, L. D. (2006). Needs assessment. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 37(4), 148-149.

DeSilets, L. D. (2007). Needs Assessment: An Array of Possibilities. The Journal of Continuing
Education in Nursing, 38(3), 107-112.


Dierdorff, E. C., & Surface, E. A. (2008). Assessing training needs: Do work experience and
capability matter? Human Performance, 21(1), 28-48.

DiLauro, T. (1979, Nov./Dec). Training needs assessment: Current practices and new directions. Public Personnel Management, 8(6), 350-359.


Dolliver, Sarah K. (Oct. 1993). "To train or not to train? ... an essential question." SuperVision 54:10: 12

Eastman, J., Witkin, B. and Burnham, B. (1987). How to limit a needs assessment. In How to Evaluate Educaitonal Programs (pp. 1-4). Capitol Publications.

Endacott, R. (1997). Clarifying the concept of need: a comparison of two approaches to concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing 25, 471-476

Engle, M., & Altschuld, J. W. (2014). Needs assessment: The perspective from the public sector. In J. W. Altschuld & R. Watkins (Eds.), Needs assessment: Trends and a view toward the future. New Directions for Evaluation, 144, 33–45.

Eschenfelder, B. (2010). Using community based assessments to strengthen nonprofit-government collaboration and service delivery. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 32, 405-446.

Evans, N. J. (1985). Needs assessment methodology: A comparison of results. Journal of College Student Personnel, 26(2)107–114.

Fairbairns, Jill (1991) Plugging the gap in training needs analysis. Personnel Management; v23, n2, p43(3)

Finlayson, M. (2007, March 19). Community-based practice: Assessing community needs and strengths. Occupational Therapy Practice, 29–31.

Freeman, J. (1993). Human resources planning - training needs analysis. Management Quarterly, v34, n3, p32(3)

Ford, J. K., Noe, R. A. (1987). Self-assessed training needs: The effects of attitudes toward training, managerial level, and function. Personnel Psychology, 40, 39–53.

Foster, G. R., & Southard, M. (1988). Criteria for Setting Needs Priorities: The Practitioner's Perspective. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 30(1), 35-43.

Fulop, M., Loop-Bartick, K., & Rossett, A. (1997, July). Using the World Wide Web to conduct a needs assessment. Performance Improvement, 36(6), 22-27.

Gamon, J. A., (1992). Focus groups--A needs assessment tool. Journal of Extension, 30(1),

Gent, M. J., Dell'Omo, G. G. (1989). The needs assessment solution. Personnel Administrator, 34(1)82–84.

Ghosh, T.S., Patnaik. J.L., & Vogt, R.L. (2007). Rapid needs assessment among HurricaneKatrina evacuees in metro-Denver. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 18(2), 362-368.


Gould, D., Kelly, D. and White, I. (2004), "Training needs analysis: an evaluation framework", Nursing Standard, Vol. 18 No. 20, pp. 33-6.

Graham, K. and Mihal, W. (1986). Can your management development needs surveys be trusted? Training & Development Journal, v40, n3, p38(5)

Grant, J. (2002). Learning needs assessment: assessing the need. British Medical Journal, 324, 156-159.

Grier, A. S. (2005). Integrating needs assessment into career and technical curriculum development. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, v42 n1 p59-66

Guthrie, J.P., and Schwoerer, C.E. (1994), Individual and Contextual Influences on Self-assessed TrainingNeeds, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 405–423.

Guthrie, J.P., and Schwoerer, C.E. (1996), Older Dogs and New Tricks: Career Stage and Self-assessed Need for Training, Public Personnel Management, 25, 59–72.

Hazucha, J., Holt, K. (1991). Starting right. Training & Development Journal, 45, 71–72.


Herbert, G.R. and Doverspike, D. (1990), "Performance appraisal in the training needs analysis process: a review and critique", Public Personnel Management, Vol. 19 No. 3, pp. 253-70.

Hiebert, M. B., Smallwood, N. (1987). Now for a completely different look at needs analysis. Training and Development Journal, 41, 75–79.

Hoalt, P. N. (1991) A needs assessment evaluation as a basis for training of hospice volunteers. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois.

Holton, E., Bates, R. & Naquin, S. (2000, Summer). Largescale performance-driven training needs assessment: A case study. Public Personnel Management, 29(2), 249-267.

Hung, H-L., Altschuld, J.W., & Lee, Y-F. (2008). Methodological and conceptual issues confronting a cross-country Delphi study of educational program evaluation. Evaluation and Program Planning, 31, 191-198.


Iqbal, M.Z., Malik, S.A., and Khan, R.A. (2012), “Answering the journalistic six on the training needs assessment of pharmaceutical sales representatives: Comparative perspectives of trainers and trainees”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, Vol. 6 No. 1, pp.71-96.


Iqbal, M.Z., and Khan, R.A. (2011). The growing concept and uses of training needs assessment. Journal of European Industrial Training, 35(5), 439-466. [contains a extensive reference section]

James, B. (1956). Can "needs" define educational goals. Adult Education Quarterly. 7(19). p 19-26.

Jerabek, JA, and McMain, L..(2002) 'The Answer You Get Depends on Who (and What) You Ask', Journal of Library Administration, 37: 3, 387 — 395.

Kalman, H. K. (2016), Integrating Evaluation and Needs Assessment: A Case Study of an Ergonomics Program. Perf. Improvement Qrtly, 29: 51–69. doi: 10.1002/piq.21214

Kamis, E. (1979). A witness for the defense of needs assessment. Evaluation and Program Planning, 2, 7–12.

Kaufman, R., and Watkins, R. (2000). Getting serious about results and payoffs: We are what we say, do, and deliver. Performance Improvement Journal, 39(4), 23–32.

Kaufman, R., Thiagarajan, S. (1987). Identifying and specifying requirements for instruction. In R. M. Gagne (). Instructional technology:Foundations (pp. 113–140). Hillsdale: NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Kaufman, R. And Watkins, R. (1999). Needs Assessment. In Langdon, D. (Ed.). The Resource Guide to Performance Interventions. San Francisco, CA:Jossey-Bass.

Kaufman, R. and Watkins, R. (1996) Mega Planning: A framework for integrating strategic planning, needs assessment, quality management, benchmarking, and reengineering. In Jones, J. E. & Biech, E. (Ed.). The HR Handbook, Vol. 1. Amherst MA., HRD Press.

Kaufman, R., Stith, M., Triner, D. And Watkins, R. (1998). The Changing Corporate Mind: Organizations, vision, mission, purposes, and indicators on the move toward societal payoffs. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 11(3), 32-34.

Kaufman, R.  (1977, November).  A Possible taxonomy for needs assessment.  Educational Technology, 60-64.

Kaufman, R.  (1977).  Needs assessment: Internal and external.  Journal of Instructional Development, 1(1), 5-8.  (Also reprinted in Revista de Tecnologia Educativa, No. 1, Vol. 3, 1977).

Kaufman, R., Stakenas, R. G., Wager, J. C., & Mayer, H.  (1981).  Relating needs assessment, program development, implementation and evaluation.  Journal of Instructional Development, 4(4), 17-26.  (Also reprinted in Revista de Tecnologia Educativa, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1983).

Kaufman, R.  (1986, January).  Obtaining functional results: Relating needs assessment, needs analysis, and objectives.  Educational Technology, 24-27.

Kaufman, R.  (1987, October).  A needs assessment primer.  Training & Development Journal.

Kaufman, R.  (1988, July).  Needs assessment: A menu.   Performance & Instruction Journal.

Kaufman, R.  (1989, September).  Needs assessment: More than questionnaires.  Training & Development Journal.

Kaufman, R.  (1990, Winter).  Relating evaluation and needs assessment. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 1(4), 405-408.

Kaufman, R. (1994, February).  A Needs Assessment Audit. Performance & Instruction.

Kaufman, R. (1994). Needs Assessment and Analysis.  Chapter 87 in Tracey, W. R. Human Resources Management & Development Handbook, 2nd. ed.  New York: American Management Association.

Kaufman, R. (1994, February). Auditing Your Needs Assessment  Training & Development. Volume 48, Number 2.

Kaufman, R. (1997). Needs Assessment Basics.  In Kaufman, R., Thiagarajan, S., & MacGillis, P. (Editors). (1997).  The Handbook for Performance Improvement. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer & Co/Division of Jossey-Bass.

Kavale, J. (2012). Needs and Needs Assessment in Career Guidance and Counselling: Lack of Scientific Exploration and Justification? Indian Journal of Career and Livelihood Planning. 1(1). pp. 28-35.

Kebede, K. Y., & Mulder, K. F. (2008). Needs Assessment and Technology Assessment: Crucial Steps in Technology Transfer to Developing Countries. Revista Internacional de Sostenibilidad, Tecnologia y Humanismo, (3), 85–104.

Keister, D. & Grames, H. (2012). Multi-method needs assessment optimizes learning. The
Clinical Teacher, 9(5), 295-298.

Kilburg, R. (1978). Consumer Survey as a Needs Assessment Method: A Case Study. Evaluation
and Program Planning, 1(), 285-291.$02.00/0

King, K.P. & Jakuta, M.O. (2002). Needs assessment recommendations for practice from the field: A case study. Adult Basic Education, 12, 157-172.

King, N. (1997). “The Community Needs Assessment: Analyzing the Not-For-Profit Market”. Nursing Homes. Vol 46, No. 2, pp. 23-26.


Kirkpatrick, D.L. (1977), "Determining training needs: four simple and effective approaches", Training and Development Journal, Vol. 31 No. 2, pp. 22-5.

Knott, T. D. (1992, September). Determining societal needs for distance education in tomorrow's global village. Educational Media International, 29, 162-164.

Korth, S. (2001). Consolidating Needs assessment and evaluation: Saving time and money. Performance Improvement, 40(1), 38-43.

Kwok, Y. Y., Chui, W. H., & Wong, L. P. (2012) Need satisfaction mechanism linking volunteer motivation and life satisfaction: A mediation study of volunteers’ subjective well-being. Social Indicators Research, 114, 1315-1329. doi: 10.1007/s11205-012-0204-8

Lan, J. (2001). Web‐Based Instruction for Education Faculty: A Needs Assessment. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 33(4), 385.

Lareau, L.S. (1983). Needs Assessment of the Elderly: Conclusions and Methodological Approaches. The Gerontologist, 23, pp. 518-526.

Lawton, B. (1989). Library instruction needs assessment: Designing survey instruments. Research Strategies, 7(3)119–128.

Laxdal, O. E. (1982). Needs assessment in continuing medical education: a practical guide. Journal of Medical Education, 57, 827-834.


Leat, Michael James, and Lovell, Murray Jack. (1997). "Training needs analysis: weaknesses in the conventional approach." Journal of European Industrial Training 21:4: 143-153.

Lee, W., & Roadman, K. (1991). Linking needs assessment to performance based evaluation. Performance + Instruction. 30:4-6

Lee, Y-F., Altschuld, J. W., & White, J.L. (2007).  Problems in needs assessment data: Discrepancy analysis.  Evaluation and Program Planning, 30(3), 258-266.

Lee, Y-F., Altschuld, J. W., & White, J. L. (2007).  Effects of the participation of multiple stakeholders in identifying and interpreting perceived needs. Evaluation and Program Planning, 30(1), 1-9.

Leigh, D., Watkins, R., Platt, W., and Kaufman, R. (2000). Alternate models of needs assessment: Selecting the right one for your organization. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 11(1), 87–93.

Leigh, D. (2004). Needs assessment readiness checklist. In M. Silberman  (Ed.). The 2004 training and performance sourcebook. Princeton, NJ: Active Training / American Society for Training and Development (ASTD).

Lepicki, T., & Boggs, A. (2014). Needs assessments to determine training requirements. In J. W. Altschuld & R. Watkins (Eds.), Needs assessment: Trends and a view toward the future. New Directions for Evaluation, 144, 61–74.

Levine, S., Joseph, E. (1987). Proposing a needs assessment model for academic program development. Saginaw, MI. Saginaw Valley State College. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 295 046).

Lewis, T. and Bjorkquist, D. (1992). Needs Assessment: A critical reappraisal. Performance Improvement Quarterly. 5(4). p 33-54.

Lucier, K. H. (2008). A consultative training program: Collateral effect of a needs
assessment. Communication Education, 57(4), 482-489.

Lundberg, C., Elderman, J. L., Ferrell, P. and Harper, L. (2010), Data gathering and analysis for needs assessment: A case study. Performance Improvement, 49: 27–34.

Macaulay, A.C. & Ryan, J.G. (2003) Community needs assessment and development using the participatory research model. Annals of Family Medicine, 1(3), 183-184.

Malilay, J., Flanders, W.D., & Brogan, D. (1996). A modified cluster-sampling method for post-
disaster rapid assessment of needs. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 74(4),

Marrs, L., &Helge, D. (1978). The role of needs assessment in program planning and evaluation. Journal of Special Education.12:143-151.


Martin, G. (2009). Making sure the solutions are the right ones: Training needs analysis. Training and Development in Australia, 36(2), 18.

Martinez-Brawley, E. E., Blundall, J. (1991). Whom shall we help? Attitudes about need and services. Social Work, 36(4)315–321.


Mathews, BP, Ueno, A, Kekale, T, Repka, M, Pereira, ZL, Silva, G, Mathews, BP (2001) "Quality training: Needs and evaluation - findings from a European survey" Total Quality Management 12 4-5 483-490.

Mavroudi, A., & Hadzilacos, T. (2013). Learning needs analysis of collaborative e-
classes in semi-formal settings: The REVIT example. The International Review of
Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(5).

McArdle, G.E.H. (1996) Conducting a needs assessment for your work group. Supervisory Management, v41, n3, p6(1)

McCaslin, N.L., & Tibezinda, J.P. (1997). Assessing Target Group Needs. Improving agricultural extension. a reference manual. Retrieved October 10, 2010, from

McClelland, S.B. (1994). Training needs assessment data-gathering methods: part 1, survey questionnaires. Journal of European Industrial Training, 18(1), 22-26.

McClelland, S.B. (1994) "Training Needs Assessment Data-gathering Methods:: Part 2 – Individual Interviews", Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 18 Iss: 2, pp.27 - 31

McClelland, S.B. (1994). Training needs assessment data-gathering methods: part 3, focus groups. Journal of European Industrial Training, 18(3), 29-32.

McClelland, S.B. (1994) "Training Needs Assessment Data-gathering Methods:: Part 4, On-site Observations", Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 18 Iss: 5, pp.4 - 7

McClelland, S.B. (1992). A systems approach to needs assessment. Training & Development, v46, n8, p51(3)

McClelland, S.B. (1993) Training needs assessment: an 'open-systems' application. Journal of European Industrial Training, v17, n1, p12(6)

McKimm, J. & Swanwick T. (2009). Assessing learning needs. British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 70(6), 348-351.

McLeod, S. K. (2011). Knowledge of need. International Journal of Philosophical Studies, 19(2), 211- 230.

Meissen, G. J., Gleason, D. F., Embree, M. G. (1991). An assessment of the needs of mutual-help groups. American Journal of Community Psychology, 19(3)427–443.

Miranda, R. (2002). Needs Assessments and Business Case Analysis for Technology Investment Decisions. Government Finance Review, 18(5), 12.

Molenaar, K., & Saller, B. (2003). Educational Needs Assessment for Design/Build Project Delivery. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education & Practice, 129(2), 106.

Monette, M. (1979).Need Assessment: a Critique of Philosophical Assumptions. Adult Education Quarterly. 29. p83.


Moore, D. E., Green, J. S., & Gallis, H. A. (2009). Achieving Desired Results and Improved Outcomes: Integrating Planning and Assessment Throughout Learning Activities. The Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 29, 1-15.

Moore, H. K., McKethen, M. T., & Holthusen, A. E. (2011). A Mixed-Methods, Multiprofessional Approach to Needs Assessment for Designing Education. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 31, 220-221.

Moore, M. and Dutton, P. (July 1978) "Training needs analysis: Review and critique." Academy of Management. The Academy of Management Review 3: 532

Moore‐Thomas, C., & Erford, B. (2003). Needs Assessment: An Ongoing Process for School Improvement. In Wall, J., Walz, G. (Eds.). (2003). Measuring Up: Assessment Issues for Teachers, Counselors, and Administrators. Austin, TX:Pro-Ed Publications.


Morano, R. (1973). Determining organizational training needs. Personnel Psychology. 26. 4: 479-487.

Moseley, J. and Heaney, M. (1994). Needs Assessments Across Disciplines. Performance Improvement Quarterly. 7(1). p 60-79. [includes an extensive references section]

Muller, N., & Roberts, V. (2010). Seven Cures to Skipping the Needs Assessment. Training and Develeopment, 64(3), 32-34.

Myers, P. (1999). The objective assessment of general practitioners’ educational needs: an under-researched area? British Journal of General Practice, 49, 303-307.


Naess, P. (2009). Up-front assessment of needs. In T. Williams, K. Samset, & K. Sunnevåg (Eds.), Making essential choices with scant information (pp. 85–105). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan.

Nelson, R. R. (1991). Educational needs as perceived by IS and end-user personnel: A survey of knowledge and skill requirements. MIS Quarterly, 15(4), 503–521.

Nelson, R. Ryan , Whitener, Ellen M., and Philcox, Henry H. (1995). The assessment of end-user training needs. Communications of the ACM, v38, n7, p27(13)

Newstrom, J. and Lillyquist, M. (1979). Selecting Needs Analysis Methods. Training and Development Journal, Vol. 33 Issue 10, p52-56.

Norman, G. R., Shannon, S. I., & Marrin, M. I. (2004). The need for needs assessment in continuing education. British Medical Journal, 328, 999-1001.

Norris, D. S., & Schwartz, C. L. (2009). Needs assessments: An integrated assignment in civic service. Journal of Teaching in Social Work,29(4), 373-382.

Nowack, K. M. (1991). A True Training Needs Analysis. Training & Development Journal, v45, n4, p69(5)


O'Driscoll, M. and Taylor, P. (Dec. 1992). Congruence between theory and practice in management training needs analysis. International journal of human resource management. 3. 3: 593.

Olivas, L. (1993). Designing and conducting a training needs analysis: putting the horse before the cart. Journal of Management Development, 2(3), 19-41.

Olshfski,D.,Joseph, A. (1991). Assessing training needs of executives using the delphi technique. Public Productivity & Management Review, 14(3)297–301.

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